Explain Observation Technique


Q. Observation Technique

Introduction

Observation means to look outside of oneself, at others. It is an important means to collect information. It is a non-testing or non-standardized technique. In counseling, much of the information regarding the personal adjustment of the individual is obtained by this method.

Definition of observation

As per Good – “Observation deals with the behavior of individuals in appropriate situations.”

As per Hampleman – “Observation as a method of studying pupils/students, consists of the direct observations of the behavior of individual or class group.”

Characteristics of observation

  • Observation is specific.
  • Scientific observation is systematic.
  • It is quantitative as there is recording of the number of instances.
  • Results can be checked in terms of reliability and validity.
  • It is a technique to observe the behavior of an individual.
  • It is carried out for one person at a time.

Situations of observation

  • Free/Open – There is no restriction in this situation.
  • Manipulated – The observer introduces special or additional factors in the situation. Eg. Drop a 100 rupee note and see if anyone pockets it or returns it.
  • Controlled situation – This is undertaken in controlled or restricted environments. Eg. Interview panel, examinations, debates.
  • Uncontrolled situation – Where one has no control over the situation. Eg. Calamities, Epidemics.

Types of observation

  • Natural – Observation carried out in natural settings without any tools or techniques.
  • Participant – Observer establishes perfect rapport with the group/individual in such a way that he/they may not become aware of his purpose and thus may not hide their actual behavior.
  • Direct versus Indirect – Directly observing the individual versus deductions on the basis of some collected information.
  • Recorded versus Unrecorded – Noting observation down is recorded while not noting it down is unrecorded.
  • Individual versus Group – Observing only one person versus an entire group.

Principles of observation

  • At a time only one child should be observed.
  • The process of observation should go on over a long period of time.
  • Observation should be systematic.
  • The pupil ALONG WITH the surrounding situation should be observed.

Advantages of observation

  • It is a useful technique to collect data of students.
  • It is flexible and can be used in various situations.
  • It can be used by all persons.
  • We can keep a record of the pupil’s actual or real behavior in different situations.
  • It is a very reliable instrument technique for the study of behavior pattern.
  • We can know a lot about the mental processes and personality.
  • It is economical, natural and flexible.
  • It is useful for studying the influence of heredity and environmental factors on the child’s development.

Limitations of observation

  • It is difficult to observe the inner behavior of the child.
  • If we make the person whom we are observing conscious then behavior becomes artificial.
  • Sometimes observation may be full of favoritism.
  • Sometimes mental and physical fatigue affects the quality of observation.
  • There is great scope for subjectivity.
Share on: Share YogiRaj B.Ed Study Notes on twitter Share YogiRaj B.Ed Study Notes on facebook Share YogiRaj B.Ed Study Notes on WhatsApp
Interview technique for testing
Q. Interview as a technique for testing

Meaning of Interview
Interview is a non-testing technique for collecting information.
Interview is best known face-to-face situation/communication to get information directly from the individual.

Read full article
Problems of Guidance
Q. Problems of Guidance (in school and in general)

Implementation of Guidance and making it an integral part of education is a herculean task in the Indian scenario due to these reasons –
Feeling of purposelessness in guidance

Read full article
Explain Interest Tests
Q. Interest Tests

Given a choice, you prefer to do a particular activity to other. Why it is so? Because you enjoy doing that activity or it gives you satisfaction. Each person makes a variety of decisions regarding the type of activities in which he/she will participate.

Read full article
Explain Attitude Tests
Q. Attitude Tests

Attitudes are expressions of how much we like or dislike various things.
We tend to approach and seek out to be associated with things we like, we avoid, shun or reject things we do not like.

Read full article