General Studies

General studies and Civics , our constitution notes. Useful for UPSC, IAS, HSC, State SC. Useful for all types of competitive exams, like UGC Net, CTET, HTET, Banking exams.


Attorney General of India – General Studies notes
Attorney General of India – General Studies notes

The Attorney General is the first law officer of the government of India. He is appointed by the President and holds office during the pleasure of the President. His duties are to advise the government on legal matters to perform other legal duties which are referred or assigned to him by the President.

The Comptroller and Auditor General of India
The Comptroller and Auditor General of India

The Comptroller and Auditor General of India is appointed by the President.
He holds office until he attains the age of sixty five years or at the expiry of six- year term, whichever is earlier.
He is the guardian of the public purse.
His duties are to keep the accounts of the Union and the States

Citizenship and Fundamental Rights
Citizenship and Fundamental Rights

The Constitution provides for single citizenship. There is no separate citizenship of states. According to the Constitution the following three categories of persons are entitled to citizenship:
(1) persons domiciled in India
(2) refugees who migrated to India from Pakistan
(3) Indians living in other countries.

Can Fundamental Rights be amended?
Can Fundamental Rights be amended?

The Golak Nath case is a landmark in the constitutional history of India. In this decision the Supreme Court took away the power of Parliament to amend the Fundamental Rights. But by the 24th Amendment Act 1971, the Parliament amended Art. 13 and 368 to make it clear that the Parliament has the power to amend any part of the Constitution including Fundamental Rights

Directive Principles of State Policy

The Directive Principles of State Policy which embody the ambitions and aspirations of the makers of the Constitution, are contained in Part 4 of the Constitution. They aim at providing the social and economic basis for a genuine democracy. These principles are not enforceable through courts and are merely directives which the government has to keep in mind while framing a policy.

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The Constitution of India
The Constitution of India

The evolution of constitutional development in India as an independent and sovereign republic has its immediate historical roots during the British rule. The constitutional development is inevitably linked with our national freedom movement.

The Union and its territory

Article 1 of the Constitution describes India as a Union of States. The expression ‘Union of India’ should be distinguished from the expression ‘Territory of India’. While the ‘Union’ includes only the states which enjoy the status of being members of the federal system and share a distribution of power with the Union , the term ‘territory of India’ includes the entire territory over which the sovereignty of India, for the time being extends.

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Constitutional Amendments in Indian Constitution

Article 368 deals with amendment procedure of the Constitution. A Bill for the purpose of amendment of the Constitution could be initiated in either house of Parliament and not in any state legislature. The Constitution lays down three different procedures for the amendment of various provisions of the Constitution.

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Electoral System

The electoral system of India is largely based on the British pattern. Parliament has passed a number of laws to regulate the electoral system. Some prominent laws enacted by the Parliament include Representation of People’s Act, 1950, Representation of People’s Act 1951 etc

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Indian Federalism, Federal and Non – Federal Features

The Constitution provides a federal system of government in the country even though it describes India as ‘a Union of States’. The term implies that firstly, the Indian federation is not the result of an agreement between independent units..

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Centre – State Relations

Relations between the Union and States can be studied under the following heads
(a) Legislative Relations-
The Constitution divides legislative authority between the Union and the States in three lists- the Union List, the State List and the Concurrent List. The Union list consists of 99 items. The Union Parliament has exclusive authority to frame laws on subjects enumerated in the list.

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Judiciary – The Supreme Court

Though India is a federal system, India has opted for a unified and single judiciary and a single integrated system of courts for the Union as well as the States. The Supreme Court stands at the apex of the judicial system of India. It consists of a Chief Justice and 25 other judges. Appointment – The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President with the consultation of such judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts as he may deem necessary for the purpose.

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Judiciary – The High Court

The judiciary in states consists of a High Court and subordinate courts. The Parliament can, however, establish by law a common High court for two or more such states, or for one or more states and one or more union territories.
Appointment of Judges
Every High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and such other Judges as the President may from time to time appoints.

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Local Government – Panchayats

Panchayati Raj is an important feature of the Indian political system which ensures the direct participation of people at the grass roots level. After independence the framers of the Constitution decided to give them importance and under Article 40 of the Directive Principles directed the states to “organize village panchayats as units of self government”

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National flower of India | National symbols of India
National flower of India | National symbols of India

National Flower of India
Lotus is the National Flower of India. Lotus who’s scientific name is Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn, is a holly flower and occupies a unique and specific position in the art and mythology of ancient India. Lotus is an auspicious symbol in Indian culture.

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Bharat Ratna | The highest civilian honour of the Republic of India
Bharat Ratna | The highest civilian honour of the Republic of India

Bharat Ratna Award
Bharat Ratna award is the highest civilian honour of the Republic of India. Instituted and started on 2 January 1954, the award is conferred without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex, in recognition of “exceptional service or performance of the highest order”.

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Indian Flag | National flag | National flag of India | National Symbols of India
Indian Flag | National flag | National flag of India | National Symbols of India

Indian Flag
Tiranga is the National flag of India
National Flag of India symbolises national pride of our country and is one of the most respected national symbols of the country. Indian National flag, Tiranga represents the hopes and aspirations of citizens of India.

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Union Territories of India | Indian states and Union Territories
Union Territories of India | Indian states and Union Territories

Union Territories of India 2022
As in 2022, there are total 8 Union Territories in India which are governed by Administrator/Lieutenant Governor on behalf of the President of India. Puducherry and NCT of Delhi are the only 2 Union Territories which have Chief Ministers.

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Some important study notes