General Studies

General studies and Civics , our constitution notes. Useful for UPSC, IAS, HSC, State SC. Useful for all types of competitive exams, like UGC Net, CTET, HTET, Banking exams.


Attorney General of India – General Studies notes
Q. Attorney General of India

The Attorney General is the first law officer of the government of India.
The Attorney General is appointed by the President and he holds office during the pleasure of the President.
His duties are to advise the government on legal matters to perform other legal duties which are referred or assigned to him by the President and to discharge the functions conferred on by him by the Constitution.

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The Comptroller and Auditor General of India
Q. The Comptroller and Auditor General of India

The Comptroller and Auditor General of India is appointed by the President.
He holds office until he attains the age of sixty five years or at the expiry of six- year term, whichever is earlier.
He is the guardian of the public purse.
His duties are to keep the accounts of the Union and the States and to ensure that nothing is spent out of the consolidated fund of India or of the States without the sanction of the Parliament or of the State Legislatures.

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Citizenship and Fundamental Rights
Citizenship and Fundamental Rights

Citizenship
The Constitution provides for single citizenship. There is no separate citizenship of states. According to the Constitution the following three categories of persons are entitled to citizenship:
(1) persons domiciled in India
(2) refugees who migrated to India from Pakistan
(3) Indians living in other countries.
Acquisition and Termination of Citizenship

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Can Fundamental Rights be amended?
Q. Can Fundamental Rights be amended

The Golak Nath case is a landmark in the constitutional history of India. In this decision the Supreme Court took away the power of Parliament to amend the Fundamental Rights. But by the 24th Amendment Act 1971, the Parliament amended Art. 13 and 368 to make it clear that the Parliament has the power to amend any part of the Constitution including Fundamental Rights and the word ‘law’ as used in Article 13 does not include a Constitutional Amendment Act.

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Directive Principles of State Policy
Q. Directive Principles of State Policy

The Directive Principles of State Policy which embody the ambitions and aspirations of the makers of the Constitution, are contained in Part 4 of the Constitution. They aim at providing the social and economic basis for a genuine democracy. These principles are not enforceable through courts and are merely directives which the government has to keep in mind while framing a policy.

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The Constitution
Q. The Constitution

The evolution of constitutional development in India as an independent and sovereign republic has its immediate historical roots during the British rule. The constitutional development is inevitably linked with our national freedom movement. From 1858 onwards various Acts were made by the British Government for the governance of India. The most important of these Acts being Act of 1909, 1919, and 1935. None of them satisfied Indian aspirations.

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The Union and its territory
Q. The Union and its territory

Article 1 of the Constitution describes India as a Union of States. The expression ‘Union of India’ should be distinguished from the expression ‘Territory of India’. While the ‘Union’ includes only the states which enjoy the status of being members of the federal system and share a distribution of power with the Union , the term ‘territory of India’ includes the entire territory over which the sovereignty of India, for the time being extends.

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Constitutional Amendments
Q. Constitutional Amendments

Article 368 deals with amendment procedure of the Constitution. A Bill for the purpose of amendment of the Constitution could be initiated in either house of Parliament and not in any state legislature. The Constitution lays down three different procedures for the amendment of various provisions of the Constitution.

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Electoral System
Q. Electoral System

The electoral system of India is largely based on the British pattern. Parliament has passed a number of laws to regulate the electoral system. Some prominent laws enacted by the Parliament include Representation of People’s Act, 1950, Representation of People’s Act 1951 etc

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Indian Federalism, Federal and Non – Federal Features
Q. Indian Federalism, Federal and Non – Federal Features

The Constitution provides a federal system of government in the country even though it describes India as ‘a Union of States’. The term implies that firstly, the Indian federation is not the result of an agreement between independent units..

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Centre – State Relations
Q. Centre – State Relations

Relations between the Union and States can be studied under the following heads
(a) Legislative Relations-
The Constitution divides legislative authority between the Union and the States in three lists- the Union List, the State List and the Concurrent List. The Union list consists of 99 items. The Union Parliament has exclusive authority to frame laws on subjects enumerated in the list.

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Judiciary – The Supreme Court
Q. The Supreme Court

Though India is a federal system, India has opted for a unified and single judiciary and a single integrated system of courts for the Union as well as the States. The Supreme Court stands at the apex of the judicial system of India. It consists of a Chief Justice and 25 other judges. Appointment – The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President with the consultation of such judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts as he may deem necessary for the purpose.

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Judiciary – The High Court
Q. The High Court

The judiciary in states consists of a High Court and subordinate courts. The Parliament can, however, establish by law a common High court for two or more such states, or for one or more states and one or more union territories.
Appointment of Judges
Every High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and such other Judges as the President may from time to time appoints.

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Local Government – Panchayats
Q. Local Government – Panchayats

Panchayati Raj is an important feature of the Indian political system which ensures the direct participation of people at the grass roots level. After independence the framers of the Constitution decided to give them importance and under Article 40 of the Directive Principles directed the states to “organize village panchayats as units of self government”

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The Budget
Q. The Budget

The budget is the annual financial statement of the government. It is a government bill and is classified as a Money Bill. It is presented to the Lok Sabha upon the recommendation of the President.
The budget is a statement of the estimated receipts and expenditures of the government of India for the following financial year.

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Special procedure with respect to Money Bill
Q. Special procedure with respect to Money Bill

If any question arises whether a bill is a money bill or not, the decision of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha is final. His decision in this respect cannot be questioned in a court of law. A money bill cannot be introduced in the Rajya Sabha.

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Sessions of Parliament
Q. Sessions of Parliament

The sessions of Parliament are convened at the discretion of the President. However, there should not be a gap of more than six months between two sessions. The President has the power to summon or prorogue either or both Houses of Parliament.

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Prime Minister and Council of Ministers
Q. Prime Minister and Council of Ministers

The President of India is a constitutional executive head; the real executive authority of the Union is exercised by the Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers. India has adopted a cabinet system of government.

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