Illustrate maxims of teaching
Learning is essentially a matter of correct habits of thinking, application and adapts skills. In subject teaching, the teacher should follow the following maxims:
- Proceed from known to unknown: the learning of different structure of the subject should be based on structure previously learnt.
- Proceed from easy to difficult: easy and family are all kids should be our first, followed by more difficult ones.
- Proceed from simple to complex: it is particularly useful for experiments. It is also useful for selecting material for teaching, keeping in view the age and standard of the students.
- Proceed from concrete to abstract: children learn more effectively when they can see and handle objects. Audio-visual aid should play a significant role in teaching-learning process.
- Proceed from particular to general: the particular is always more definite than the general, which is indefinite. The practical facts should be grouped in such a manner that the children should be able to arrive at generalizations on their own.
- Proceed from analysis to synthesis: analysis is particularly useful in teaching of experiments, relationships, reaction; substitution tables provide good opportunities for analyzing structure and for drill work in using them in actual practice.
- Proceed from psychological to logical: teaching must always be related to the needs, interest and abilities of the learner. Hence the psychological readiness of the learner must be kept in mind before any formal teaching can take place. Thus, the psychological the patient must lead two logical approach.
- Proceed from empirical to rational: empirical knowledge which is that which is based on observation.
- Proceed from whole to part: this principle is in keeping with scientific theory, rules, laws of learning which is emphasizes the importance of observing situation as a whole.
- Proceed from actual to representatives: real objects appeal to the children.