Explain General Principles of Teaching
The general principles of teaching are those principles that are general in nature and have emerged from that general experiences.
1. Principle of definite aim:
Teaching should start with a definite aim. In the absence of definite aim the teacher might go astray and at the same time his teaching might back coherence and definiteness.
2. Principle of activity:
Teaching is ineffective if the students do not actively participate in the lesson. Learning becomes active and quicker if the student is made active physically as well as mentally.
3. Principle of knowledge and entering behaviour:
The main purpose of any act of teaching is to bring about the desired changes in the behaviour of the students. To achieve this end, the teacher must have knowledge of the entry behaviour of the students.
4. Principle of Linking with Actual Life:
Life and learning should become two poles of the same magnet; they become so interdependent that none can exist without the other. The teacher should not teach in water tight compartments.
5. Principle of Individual differences:
Students differ in their attitudes, abilities, aptitudes, interests, achievements, aims, ambitions and aspirations. Therefore teaching should make adequate provision for individual differences.
6. Principle of Pupil centeredness:.
Teaching should be pupil centered the needs, interests, abilities and aspirations of the students should be given due importance in teaching.
7. Principle of utilizing past experiences:
For effective teaching, a teacher should link the new knowledge of his students with their previous experience. It will make the teacher process easy from stable and safe.
8. Principle of Suggestiveness:
Good teaching is suggestiveness rather than authorities. The teacher behaves like a friend and a guide suggesting activities, materials and modes of response. Suggestion has the effect of provoking courteous response and inviting cooperation.
9. Principle of Correlation:
A successful lesson is the one in which different sub-units of the topic are correlated with each other. Besides, the lesson must be correlated with other subjects also.
10. Principle of democracy:
Successful teaching is democratic. The teacher should create democratic environments in the class.
11. Psychological Principles of Teaching:
Psychological principles teaching are those principles which make teaching stimulating and effective by taking into account the psychology of the child.
12. Principle of motivation or interests:
It is said that half the battle is won if the students are truly motivated for the lesson. Motivation is the petrol that drives the mental engine. Motivation not only promotes but also facilitates learning. Motivation arouses the interest of the child and once he is genuinely interested, he become attentive and consequently learning becomes effective. Hence teacher should property motivate the students by creating interesting learning situations. Teaching should be linked with activities and purposes of life.
13. Principles of Sympathy and Kindness:
Sympathetic attitude on the part of the teacher is an essential pre requisite of successful teaching successful teaching cannot take place in a situation that lacks sympathy and kindness with the interest and needs of students. The teacher should be good and kind to the students in order to teach them properly.
14. Principle of recreation:
Successful teaching proves to be a source of creativeness and recreation. It awakens in the learners a desire to be creative and engages them in activity which is a source of pleasure to them.
15. Principle of readiness:
If the pupils are not ready to learn, it is the duty of the teacher to make him ready for learning. Principle of readiness warns the teacher to take up only those tasks for teaching which are according to psychology of the pupils. i.e. their abilities, interests, attitudes, aspirations, maturation and developmental level.
16. Principle of feedback and reinforcement:
A child learns quickly if he gets feedback and reinforcement in the form of appreciation of every step.
17. Principle of encouraging self learning:
The teacher should inculcate the habit of self study, independent work and self learning among the students by providing proper opportunities and training to his students of this purpose.
18. Principle of change and rest:
Monotony fatigue and lack of attention decrease the speed of learning change in stimulus and other types of changes in the contents, methods and teaching learning environment with adequate rest and recreation prove very effective in teaching and learning.