Q. Principles of growth and development
1. Principles of Sequential Development: Development follows a pattern (sequence)
Every species whether animal or human-being follow a pattern of development. In the case of human beings the process of development follows a definite pattern.
2. Principle of orderly development: It proceeds from general to specific e.g. in building vocabulary, child first learn general words, and it is only afterwards that he learn specific words.
3. Principle of rapid development during early years: It proceeds more rapidly in early years of life e.g. period of infancy is marked rapid period of growth and development.
4. Principle of Continuous development: Development is continuous. Development of both physical and mental traits reaches their maximum growth.
5. Principle of constancy of Individual differences: Individual difference in the development remains constant. Those who develop slowly at birth will continue to do so, while those whose development was rapid during early years will continue to develop rapidly.
6. Principle of Interrelated different aspects of development: Different aspects of development are interrelated and interdependent. Child’s early social behavior is interrelated with his physical development. If the child is physical handicapped then his social behavior will be retarded.
7. Principle of Predictability: Development is predictable. It is possible to predict the aptitude or intelligence of a person on the bases of aptitude or intelligence tests given in earlier years.
8. Principle of Cumulative and Recapitulatory development: Cumulative means “to add up”. In development a single experience matters and it does not waste. Our behavior is a result of behaviors experiences. Development is recapitulatory because character of an stage can be establish in other stages e.g. self lane of infancy can also be seen in the ad descent stage.
9. Principle of interaction of Heredity and Environment: An individual is product of both heredity and environment development is caused by both heredity and environment.
10. Principle of Interaction of Maturation and Learning Growth and Development occur both as a result of maturation means changes in a development organism due to unfolding and ripening of abilities, traits present at birth. Learning denotes the changes in behavior due to training or experience.
11. Principles of different rates of development: Development occurs at different rates for different parts of the body. Different aspects of physical and mental traits develop at their own rates and reach maturity at their own rates and reach maturity at different times.
12. Principles of Unique Development: Individuals differ individually with regards to their time schedule i.e. all children will first sit up, crawl and stand before they walk. But individual children will vary in regard to timing or age at which they can perform these activities. It means that development is not uniform in all individuals.
13. Principle of different rates of development in male and female child or differential develops: There is difference in the growth rate of boys and girls. Girls mature earlier in comparison to boys.
14. Principle of struggle: While the child is developing up towards maturity, there are conflicts and demands. The child struggles against these in his striving for maturity.
15. Principle of Anticipation: A child in his process of development also uses his capacity of self despair. He modifies his behavior and even habits keeping in view what he is going ‘to become’ in future. Thus, he continuously anticipates his future direction of development.
16. Principle of Indigenous motivation: As a child matures in his capacity of doing, thinking and feeling, he has an impulse to put them to use and he does it whole heatedly. This has been describe by Jersild as ‘Indigenous Motivation’.
17. Principle of spiral versus Linear Advancement: The path followed by child is not straight and linear.