Define Wastage and Stagnation.
What are the causes of Wastage and Stagnation.
As a Teacher what measures/remedies would you suggest to the problem of Wastage and Stagnation?
The Govt. of India promotes free and compulsory primary education but it is widely seen that by the time children reach 9 years, they start to drop out of school or else cannot cope and have to be detained in the same class. This leads to wastage and stagnation.
Definitions by Hartog Committee –
Wastage Meaning –
“The premature withdrawal of children at any stage before completion of the primary education is called Wastage.”
Stagnation Meaning –
“The retention of a child in the same class for a period of more than one year is called stagnation.”
Causes of Wastage and Stagnation
1. Socio-economic – Poverty, inequality of sexes, illiteracy, rampant superstitions, conservative attitudes are some of the main causes for drop-outs. Paucity of funds and their improper distribution also aggravate the problem as higher classes may not be added to the school.
2. Educational – Poor quality of teaching, inexperienced teachers and single school teachers where one teacher is overburdened with classes and administration. Lack of vocational courses and faulty evaluation styles. Gandhiji’s call of “earn and learn” is ignored and pupils are not capable of directly earning well after Xth and XIIth.
3. Absence of school facilities and infrastructure – Inadequacy or absence of proper buildings, water, sanitation, transport, laboratories, playground, etc.
4. Unwilling teachers – Teachers are not well-qualified or well-trained. Teachers from urban areas refuse to move to rural institutes.
5. Mismatch in school timings – In rural areas children are also expected to help in the primary occupations and earn for the family and there is a clash as schools and agricultural work run at the same time.
6. Miscellaneous – Under-nourishment and malnutrition of children, health problems, no medical facilities and mental block sets in when a child has to repeat a class.
7. Lack of funds – Late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi mentioned that 1 rupee allotted at the top becomes 10 paisa by the time it filters down to the truly needy.