Problems of vocationalisation at the higher secondary stage and remedial measures

B.Ed Second Year Notes English Medium

Current issues and problems at Higher Secondary Level

Explain the problems of vocationalisation at the +2 stage and suggest remedial measures


As per the UNESCO, Vocational Education is a comprehensive term which (in addition to general education) involves the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understandings and knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life.


1) Rigid curriculum – Even though the higher secondary syllabus comprises of 23 subjects, it is yet rigid because not all these subjects are offered by colleges. Thus students have to forcefully opt for only those subjects which are available even if they do not have any liking or interest for them.

2) Short duration – The duration or time-period of the course is often not sufficient for imparting sufficient knowledge and skills for that vocation.

3) Preference for degrees – Even after completing a vocational course of 2-3 years, jobs are not readily given as employers look for candidates with degrees and not diplomas. So the students are sitting idle after even after putting in so much money, time and efforts.

4) Rural areas – In rural areas, especially, the vocational course set is not beneficial as it is not set as per the taluka or village’s needs. Also, in some cases, people are not able to handle infrastructure such as computers, etc. or there is the problem of no electricity to run that infrastructure.

5) Lack of maturity – Students at the +2 stage are very often not mature and intelligent enough to choose the right vocation. And hence they end up making wrong decisions that last lifelong.

6) Limited scope – Vocational courses equip students to become entrepreneurs and start their own business but if not, then opportunities to get jobs in any other areas are limited and restricted.

7) Lack of funds – Institutions do not want to go beyond the regular conventional courses and add new courses.

8) Lack of Institutions – Dedicated vocational training institutes are few and far between.

9) Lack of infrastructure – Schools may not have the desired space and equipment for managing vocational training courses.

Suggested measures for success

1) There should be in-built elasticity in the choice of subjects where students can choose a mix of General Education + Vocational Education subjects.

2) Vocational surveys of the areas should be undertaken and the needs of the community studied before finalizing on the launch of a vocational subject.

3) Counselling and Placement measure should be started so that students are assured of proper jobs and absorbed into the mainstream.

4) Practical working people as well as academicians should join hands and prepare the curriculum and textbooks for vocational subjects.

5) Since little or no vocational education facilities exist in rural areas, construction of adequately equipped schools should be carried out.

6) The space capacity of all existing schools should be judiciously utilized by running double shifts and adding further courses to ITIs, polytechnics and industrial high schools.

7) Additional choice of courses should be made available in it is, polytechnics and industrial high schools.


Vocationalisation is a very timely innovation. It provides the society with personnel having a wide spectrum of knowledge and training for its own need and upliftment. It can greatly help in faster economic growth. Thus all out efforts need to be made to make the scheme successful.

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