Evaluation meaning and Principles of evaluation
Evaluation is a systematic process of determining the extent to which educational objectives have been achieved by pupils.
Evaluation = Quantitative + Qualitative + Value judgements.
Different aspects of Evaluation in education –
Aspects of Evaluation –
1. Identifying and defining Objectives
To provide direction to the teaching process, we must determine the expected learning outcomes or desired behavioural changes of the instruction – such as what abilities, interests, attitudes, habits of the child should be developed.
2. Planning and Imparting Learning Experiences
Emphasis is on the “Process” of learning. Planning, directing, organising activities, direct and indirect experiences, use of teaching aids, etc. Eg. Recitation, story-telling, excursions, library reading, etc.
To use various tools and techniques that provide evidence of the extent to which the objectives are achieved.
Note: – However, Evaluation does not end here, we must use the results of evaluation for improving the teaching learning process.
Principles of evaluation
No evaluation device should be used before the purpose of evaluation is clearly defined –
Unless we know exactly what change in pupil behaviour we want to achieve, we cannot evaluate the same. Hence it is imperative to first clearly define the educational objective before commencing with evaluation of the same.
Evaluation techniques should be selected in terms of the purpose that is to be served –
An evaluation technique should be chosen in accordance with the skill that is to be evaluated. E.g. A written examination cannot determine a student’s oral abilities. Instead he should be told to recite a poem or read a passage.
Comprehensive evaluation requires a variety of evaluation techniques –
To get a complete picture about the pupil’s overall progress, we cannot rely on just one evaluative technique or tool alone. We need to combine the results from a variety of techniques to make a proper judgment.
Proper use of evaluation technique requires an awareness of their limitations as well as their strengths –
E.g. For making visual comparisons, a Frequency Polygon is a very good evaluative tool but it cannot be used to make accurate calculations for which the Histogram is better.
Evaluation is a means to an end and not an end in itself –
It gives us only the present or current state of affairs which should then be used for some further purpose. Simply stopping at evaluation makes the entire process fruitless, meaningless and a waste of time.
Uses of evaluation
Parents come to know about the progress of their wards –
It is important for the parents to know about the talents as well as shortcomings of their children so that they can also do their bit towards a more harmonious development of their children.
Reveals the stage at which pupils have arrived –
Results of evaluation can help the teacher to appraise the extent to which pupils are progressing towards goals. She can then prepare a teaching programme accordingly.
Testing the Teacher’s efficiency –
Evaluation of the pupils is a form of self-assessment of the teacher too. She can create new strategies to enhance the teaching-learning process.
Evaluative techniques and their results help the guide to understand the students abilities and diagnose their problems.
Extent of achievement of objectives –
Evaluation helps to gauge to what degree one has been successful in implementing or achieving the educational objectives.
Identify strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum –
Evaluation helps to deduce if certain factors/units of the curriculum are too easy or too difficult for the students to handle.
Research purposes –
The results of evaluation also aid in research purposes to come up with new findings or patterns which help to develop newer and better tools and techniques of evaluation.