Constructivism & its application in teaching-learning


Q. Constructivism & its application in teaching-learning

Constructivism is a theory of knowledge (epistemology) by Swiss Biologist Piaget which argues that humans generate knowledge and meaning from their experiences.

The learner constructs his own ideas, concepts, and own knowledge schemas by reflecting on his experiences.

Constructivism consists of –

  • Assimilation – Here individuals incorporate the new experience into an already existing framework without changing that framework.
  • Accommodation – The learner fits or adapts to the new experience by reframing his earlier perceptional framework. Eg. Learning by failure.

How Constructivism Impacts Learning

  • Curriculum–Constructivism promotes using curricula customized to the students’ prior knowledge and emphasizes hands-on problem solving, cooperative and collaborative learning.
  • Instruction– The Teacher is a facilitator who focuses on tailoring teaching strategies to student responses and encourages students to analyze, interpret, and predict information. Eg. Ask open-ended questions and promote extensive dialogue among students.
  • Assessment–Constructivism calls for the elimination of grades and standardized testing. Instead, assessment becomes part of the learning process so that students play a larger role in judging their own progress.

Thus in constructivism, the purpose of learning is to construct one’s own meaning of the world we live in, and not just memorize the “right” answers and regurgitate someone else’s meaning.

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Mind Maps
Q. Mind Maps

The Mind Map, popularized by Tony Buzon, is similar to a concept map.
They hold information in a format that our mind finds quick to review and easy to remember.
It is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks or other items linked to and arranged radially around a central key word or idea.
The elements are arranged intuitively according to their importance.

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Social Constructivism
Q. Social Constructivism

Introduction
Constructivism is a term that should be used with caution.
It is widely used in many disciplines. It is obvious that the term constructivism is used with very different meanings. It is used to describe learning and teaching as well as curricula and assessment. It is also used in a more philosophical or epistemological meaning.

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Principles for brain-based learning
Q. Principles for brain-based learning

Implications for the Classroom
The Caines developed their 12 principles for brain-based learning in 1989 and have modified and refined them over the years. This article from NEA’s Doubts & Certainties (1994) discusses the implications of these principles for the classroom.
Educators Renate and Geoffrey Caine define brain-based learning as that which immerses children in a multiplicity of complex experiences — both authentic and fantasy

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Discussion, conclusions and implications of brain-based learning
Q. Discussion, conclusions and implications.

Like in the constructivist approach, in brain-based learning the construction of knowledge, meaningful learning, encouragement of students to construct knowledge based on their previous experiences, is encouraged.
According to both approaches, individual differences may exist both in the construction and interpretation of knowledge.

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