Mahatma Phule

Mahatma Phule

Mahatma Jyotiba Phule was an educational revolutionary of 19th century India who brought about social reforms in society especially pertaining to women’s rights.

Mahatma Jyotiba Phule was fearless and spoke his mind about his beliefs.

  • He believed in the principles of freedom, equality and fraternity and tolerance.
  • He believed that an ignorant and illiterate person is like a beast.
  • For him truth as the real religion and God was the creator.
  • Without education, man cannot develop an all-round personality.
  • Education was the only way to rid society of inequality, untouchability and injustice to women.
  • Lack of education leads to loss of intelligence and talents cannot be recognized or channeled properly which ultimately leads to loss of morality among mankind.


  • Medium of instruction should be mother tongue.
  • Primary education should be compulsory.
  • Curriculum in rural and urban areas should be different.
  • Technology, moral science and arts of monetary value should be taught.
  • Subjects relating to agriculture, hygiene, cottage industry, cottage and small scale industries and various arts and crafts should be taught.
  • Schools should be inspected at least 4 times in a year.
  • Secondary school education should be more practical and equip child to face future life.

Explain any 4 thoughts of Mahatma Phule’s on women education

Mahatma Phule was an educational revolutionary of 19th century India who brought about social reforms in society especially pertaining to women’s rights.

He believed that for society to develop and become qualitative, it was necessary for women to be educated.

  • He hated to see social inequality, slavery of women, the caste system, injustice and neglect of women’s education and thus started the Satyashodhak Samaj. For helping those women who were deserted, widowed or cheated by family or society.
  • He saw that women in general were denied educational opportunities, thus leaving them to a life of misery and subjugation where they were relegated to the background and had no say in any matter. Hence he felt it important that for society to develop and become qualitative, women should be educated as lack of education leads to loss of intelligence and morality among mankind.
  • He fought for legitimizing widow remarriage and desired to see women become independent and educated with vibrant personality of their own.
  • He believed charity begins at home and started training his wife Savitribai who became the first trained female teacher in Maharashtra even though society strongly opposed this emancipation, he did not relent as he believed that society cannot be independent till women were educated.
  • He approached the Queen of England for financial help.

Thus he continually strived for the women’s education in spite of meeting with resentment and several obstacles every step of the way.

Contribution to educational thought and process

  • Seen today in the implementation of free women education right up to college level.
  • Primary and secondary education free and compulsory for all.
  • Extension of help to weaker sections of society in terms of free books, stationary, scholarships, freeships, hostel facilities, free mid-day meals, etc.
  • Grants are given to government as well as private institutions.

Savitribai Phule

A great social reformer who was instrumental in the field of women’s education in India.

Savitribai Jyotiba Phule (January 3, 1831 – March 10, 1897).

She was an Indian social reformer, she along with her husband, Jyotiba Phule|Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, played an important role in improving women’s rights in India during British Rule. They opened the first women’s school at Pune in 1848. Savitribai Phule is considered a pioneer of modern Marathi poetry.

 Though, she was formerly uneducated, she was encouraged and motivated by Mahatma Jotiba Phule to study. Later on she became the first lady teacher of India in the school started by her husband.

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