B.Ed First Year Notes English Medium

Best B.Ed notes for B.Ed first year students of English medium. Better then any pdf and useful for education students


What are the Causes of Individual Differences

No two pupils are alike. They differ from each other in hundred and one respects.
They differ in:-
Age, Sex,
Hereditary potential,
Multiple Intelligence

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Meaning of individual differences

In education, even since the most ancient times, students have been differentiated on the basis of age as difference in age levels entitles the children to differing levels of education.
As the child’s age gradually increases, the subjects of his education can be made more complex and difficult.

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What are the Different Types of Individual Differences

1. Average Intelligence:
Individuals are seen differing in considerable measure in respect of their general intelligence.
It is not possible to send to schools children with an intelligence quotient of below 50.

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What is the Teachers Advantage in Knowing Individual Differences

What is the Teacher’s Advantage in Knowing Individual Differences
The objective of modern education is the complete development of the child. In this connection, the teacher has the following advantage to derive from knowledge of individual differences:

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What is Inclusive Education

Introduction
Inclusive education is concerned with removing all barriers to learning, and with participation of all learners vulnerable to exclusion and marginalization. It is a strategic approach designed to facilitate learning success for all children.

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Characteristics of Visually impaired challenged student
Characteristics of Visually impaired challenged student

Characteristics of Visually impaired or visually challenged student are varied according to different degrees of visual loss, different types of visual loss and different causes of visual impairment. However, they may exhibit the following behaviors:

Characteristics of a Student with Learning Disabilities

Learning disabilities are associated with problems in listening, reasoning, memory, attention, selecting and focusing on relevant stimuli, and the perception and processing of visual and/or auditory information.

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Slow learner students
Slow learner students

Definition:
“A slow-learning child is one whose capacity for learning the kind of material which is taught in the ordinary school is limited by some deficit in intellectual capacity. Limited intelligence, however, this may be defined, is the chief characteristic of the ‘Slow learner’ ”.

Characteristics of gifted children

Characteristics:-
1. Physical
(i) They are physically sound and rather better than the normal children.
(ii) Their faces are usually bright.
(iii) They possess vigour and vitality.

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Mentally Retarded Child

The American Association of Mental Deficiency states that mental retardation exists when there is significant sub average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficit in adaptive behaviour and is manifested during the developmental period.

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Physically exceptional children

The term physically exceptional has been used in literature in various ways: Physically disabled, crippled, orthopaedically impaired, or otherwise health impaired. Physical handicaps are divided into two types:

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Educational Provisions for physically exceptional children

Educational Provisions for physically exceptional children
Orthopaedically handicapped children do not need any special situation for schooling. They can be educated well in the regular school along with others. The regular classroom teacher can well handle such cases.

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Role of Teacher for Special Child Physical and Visual Impairment Students

Role of Teacher for Special Child – Physical and Visual Impairment Students
Special child means the students who have special needs. Teacher should try to fulfil their special needs so that they could not think themselves unfit in the class.

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Definitions of Learning
Definitions of Learning

Crow & Crow: Learning is acquisition of knowledge, habits and attitudes. It involves new ways of doing things in order to overcome obstacles or to adjust to new situations.

Correlation, Coefficient of Correlation, Types and Uses
Correlation, Coefficient of Correlation, Types and Uses

Correlation
Correlation is a measure of relationship. It is a statistical procedure that helps us to examine the relationship of one variable with another. When the increase or decrease of one variable corresponds to the increase or decrease of another, the 2 variables are said to be correlated. The converse is also true.

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Standard score
Standard score

Standard scores: Z AND T
Definition of Z-scores:
Z-Scores are a transformation of raw scores into a standard form, where the transformation is based on knowledge about the population’s mean and standard deviation.

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Supervised study and home assignment
Supervised study and home assignment

A Method of Teaching is a process of planning, guiding, sharing and evaluating learning with a group of students. It is a procedure the teacher follows to make learning easy and effective.

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Correlation of one branch of Geography with other two branches
Correlation of one branch of Geography with other two branches

Correlation of 1 branch of  Geography with other 2 branches of  Geography
The relationship between 2 different subjects or between 2 different branches of the same subject, which have equal or related or dependent factors is called Correlation.

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National flower of India | National symbols of India
National flower of India | National symbols of India

National Flower of India
Lotus is the National Flower of India. Lotus who’s scientific name is Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn, is a holly flower and occupies a unique and specific position in the art and mythology of ancient India. Lotus is an auspicious symbol in Indian culture.

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Bharat Ratna | The highest civilian honour of the Republic of India
Bharat Ratna | The highest civilian honour of the Republic of India

Bharat Ratna Award
Bharat Ratna award is the highest civilian honour of the Republic of India. Instituted and started on 2 January 1954, the award is conferred without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex, in recognition of “exceptional service or performance of the highest order”.

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