General Studies

General studies and Civics , our constitution notes. Useful for UPSC, IAS, HSC, State SC. Useful for all types of competitive exams, like UGC Net, CTET, HTET, Banking exams.


The State Legislature

The Constitution provides for a Legislature for every state. The legislature of every state consists of the Governor and one or two Houses. The legislatures in the state are either bicameral (consisting of two Houses) or unicameral (consisting of one House).

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President of India
President of India

The President of India is the executive head of the State. The Constitution under Art 53 vests the executive power of the Union in the President who shall exercise the powers either directly or through officers subordinate to him. He is the first citizen of India and occupies the first position under the warrant of precedence.

Municipalities

Institutions of self- government in urban areas are called by a general term Municipalities.
They are of three types:
(a) Nagar Panchayat, for a transitional area, i.e., an area which is being transformed from a rural areas to an urban area
(b) Municipal Council for a smaller urban area

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Vice President of India

Vice President of India is elected by the members of the two houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote.
Qualifications
A candidate for the office of the post of Vice President must

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The State Executive

The executive at the state level has been modeled on the central pattern. It consists of the Governor, the Council of Ministers and the Chief Minister.
The Governor
The executive power of the state is vested in the Governor and all the executive action of the state has to be taken in the name of the Governor.

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Prime Minister and Council of Ministers
Prime Minister and Council of Ministers

The President of India is a constitutional executive head; the real executive authority of the Union is exercised by the Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers. India has adopted a cabinet system of government.

Sessions of Parliament
Sessions of Parliament

The sessions of Parliament are convened at the discretion of the President. However, there should not be a gap of more than six months between two sessions. The President has the power to summon or prorogue either or both Houses of Parliament.

Special procedure with respect to Money Bill
Special procedure with respect to Money Bill

If any question arises whether a bill is a money bill or not, the decision of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha is final. His decision in this respect cannot be questioned in a court of law. A money bill cannot be introduced in the Rajya Sabha.

The Budget
The Budget

The Budget –
The budget is the annual financial statement of the government. It is a government bill and is classified as a Money Bill. It is presented to the Lok Sabha upon the recommendation of the President.

Characteristics of constitution of India
Characteristics of constitution of India

Constitution of India is a scared document. Indian constitution includes the characteristics of main Constitutions of World. Indian Constitution is a result of continues attempt, study, discussion, thinking and hard work of drafting committee during the period of 2 years 11 month and 18 days.

Right to assemble as per constitution of India
Right to assemble as per constitution of India

Right to assemble
Article 19(1)(b) in constitution of India provide that all citizens of India have the right to assemble peaceably and without arms. The right of assembly includes the right to hold meetings and to take out processions.

Merits and demerits of democracy
Merits and demerits of democracy

Meaning of Democracy
In Democracy people directly exercise power, elect a representative from among themselves to represent the people, such as a parliament.

Preamble of Indian constitution
Preamble of Indian constitution

Preamble of Indian Constitution is the key to open the mind of the makers, and shows the general purpose for which they made the several provision in the Indian Constitution. Preamble help us to understand the objectives of the Indian Constitution.

Fundamental duties in Indian Constitution | Indian Constitution
Fundamental duties in Indian Constitution | Indian Constitution

Fundamental duties
The original format of the constitution was not containing Fundamental Duties. Fundamental right were added but fundamental duties were left. Later, it was found to have fundamental duties to be introduced.

Official Language and Schedules of the Constitution
Official Language and Schedules of the Constitution

Under Article 343, Hindi in Devanagari script was accepted as the official language of the Union. But, for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of the Constitution, the English language was allowed to be used for all the official purposes of the Union.

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National flower of India | National symbols of India
National flower of India | National symbols of India

National Flower of India
Lotus is the National Flower of India. Lotus who’s scientific name is Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn, is a holly flower and occupies a unique and specific position in the art and mythology of ancient India. Lotus is an auspicious symbol in Indian culture.

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Bharat Ratna | The highest civilian honour of the Republic of India
Bharat Ratna | The highest civilian honour of the Republic of India

Bharat Ratna Award
Bharat Ratna award is the highest civilian honour of the Republic of India. Instituted and started on 2 January 1954, the award is conferred without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex, in recognition of “exceptional service or performance of the highest order”.

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Indian Flag | National flag | National flag of India | National Symbols of India
Indian Flag | National flag | National flag of India | National Symbols of India

Indian Flag
Tiranga is the National flag of India
National Flag of India symbolises national pride of our country and is one of the most respected national symbols of the country. Indian National flag, Tiranga represents the hopes and aspirations of citizens of India.

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Some important study notes