B.Ed First Year Notes English Medium
Educational Provisions for physically exceptional children
Orthopaedically handicapped children do not need any special situation for schooling. They can be educated well in the regular school along with others. The regular classroom teacher can well handle such cases.
Education of OH children has changed considerably over the past 50 years. Programs of children with orthopaedic handicaps have broadened extensively to include the process of rehabilitation. This is studying the total child. Each staff member has to participate and show sensitivity and natural respect.
Special educators need specific preparation for their team work role. The teacher’s function include
(a) Diagnosis of deprived experience and provision of what is essential
(b) Developmental guidance
(c) Coordination of habilitation programme,
(d) Promotion of integrated activities
(e) Maintenance of reality standards and discipline.
Attention should be given both to individual and group in planning differential diagnosis. It means understanding and the study of all factors of the child’s growth and his development. For example, if a child has IQ 60 and serious emotional problems due to family stress and pressure, it is not a simple case of past polio. In the total programme the vocational rehabilitation counsellor also assumes major responsibility.
Partial integration is possible in special class especially if the unit is desirably located in a public school building.
The child’s likelihood of success in regular classroom setting appears efficient when
a) the child is intellectually, socially and emotionally capable of participation with his peers,
b) the child can participate,
c) the child is not being denied therapy necessary for physical rehabilitation,
d) the curriculum is adapted to most of his needs,
e) the physical facilities of the school permit the child to hence access to important educational centres,
f) the teacher is willing to accept the child and prepared to move with one who deviates physically,
g) adequate physical assistance and special supervision is provided
h) periodic evaluation is included in the child‟s progress report,
What criteria should be used to place physically impaired children in the integrated school? The following criteria seem pertinent:
1. Average or above academic ability
2. Social and emotional ability
3. A desire to be integrated
4. Support of parents
5. Ability to communicate effectively
6. Effective management of contingency.
The Regular Teacher
For physical disability the regular teacher need to make instructional adaptations so that the children communicate with teachers well. For Health Impairment he has to know the basic characteristics of disorders, medicine and their effects, precautionary measures, keeping a watch on day to day requirements and develop appropriate expectations so that children do not suffer from identification.
Three factors are responsible for deciding the teaching procedures of physically and/or neurologically impaired children namely; Task analysis, teaching towards developing independence, and use of computer instruction.
The type of content is dependent upon the degree of physical impairment. Yet certain areas are most essential.
a) Communication skills and language
b) Activities of daily living, or self care skills (eating, bathing etc.)
c) Community referenced instruction (crossing streets, using money, riding public transportation)
d) Advanced self care skills or home living skills (operating kitchen appliances etc.)
e) Vocational preparation, career awareness, works adjustment skills.
f) Continuity and generalization.
Characteristics of Physically challenged Children
There are many children who are born with physical disabilities. However, the disabilities do not have to limit their life or natural talents if they are supported and encouraged correctly. Although physically handicapped children do have to endure certain challenges, they are capable of fulfilling their dreams by learning how to adapt and adjust to certain situations instead of giving up.
Physically handicapped children are all challenged with physical limitations to some degree.
Many physically handicapped children suffer from a lack of coordination, weak muscles, stiff muscles, or no muscle strength at all.
Rehabilitation and physical therapy can greatly assist physically handicap children in lessening and even resolving the handicap over time.
All of the necessary equipment and safety measures should be taken in order to allow the child to be as mobile and independent as possible.
It is important for parents, family members, friends, and teachers to monitor a physically disabled child’s emotional state.
At times, physical limitations can lead to frustration, anger and sadness.
The emotional outlook of the child is often directly impacted by the level of support and encouragement that is received from the people around him.
It is important for physically disabled children to have people that they can talk to openly in order to discuss, understand, and resolve emotional issues.
In some cases, it is beneficial for the child to see a therapist or enroll in a therapy program with animals or physical activities that increase his confidence.
Although some children with physical disabilities also have mental disabilities many children are mentally strong and just as capable as any other child.
It is important that parents and teachers encourage physically handicapped children to excel in school and discover their individual talents and strengths.
The Twice Gifted website explains that with the correct support and encouragement physically handicapped children can succeed in school and even surpass other classmates. Parents and teachers must recognize the gifts of the child and not limit them mentally because of physical disabilities.
5. Difficulty in sitting, standing, walking
6. Poor motor control
7. Shaky movements
8. Difficulty in picking, holding and putting things.
Physically handicapped students generally have average or above average intelligence. Dykes (1984-85) suggest 85% of health impaired and 35% of orthopaedically handicapped children are served in special schools or classes. Often their needs vary. The greater needs of the physically handicapped children are in the areas of adaptive equipments. Often they require wheel chairs, crutches, head pointers, arm and leg braces. Technological gap has narrowed down the gap in providing adequate educational instruction to students who can not speak move or use hands.
Physically handicapped children are passive, less persistent having shorter attention span, engage them in less exploration and display less motivation. They are more dependent on adults, and interact less with peers. Facilitating independence and building self esteem are the two requirements for the physically handicapped children.
The physically disabled has poor body image, high anxiety, and frustration. They are found to be quiet, conforming, tender minded and somewhat tense. Social relationships constitute a problem area for many crippled youngsters. Their capacity for frustration tolerance is lower than normal children.
Difficulties of orthopaedically handicapped arise out of several factors. Essentially children with motor disabilities are not very different from normal boys and girls. Their handicap arises out of three factors:
a. Society‟s attitude towards them.
b. Child‟s interpretation of this reaction to his limitation.
c. Discrepancy between aspiration and achievement.
Because of neurological impairment and experimental impoverishment they do show perceptual difficulties.
Intelligence of the orthopaedically handicapped children does not basically differ from those of normal except for cerebral palsy. The neuro- muscularly impaired children function 10 to 15 points between estimated intelligence. Children with cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, and hydrocephalic are included in the dull normal classification while other children with the orthopedic disability are within the normal range.