Summary of Role of Heredity
Summary of Role of Heredity
1. Influence of physical development:
Karl Pearson is of the view that the height of the child is influenced by the height of his parents.
2. Influence on character:
Dugdale states that children of characterless parents are generally characterless. He proved this statement by conducting Juke family study.
3. Influence on innate powers:
Thorndike is of the opinion that innate powers of the child are determined by heredity.
4. Influence of Intelligence:
According to Goddard, intelligence is inherited. Children of those parents who posses superior intelligence are generally bright ad children of feeble-minded parents posses low intelligence.
5. Influence on greatness:
Galton is of the view that greatness is caused due to heredity. Studies of the life histories of eminent scientists, artists, doctors, politicians and lawyers shows that many members of these families attained reputation and eminence in the same fields
Importance of Environment
1. Example of hogo fish:
If this fish is incubated in an abnormal temperature it develops one eye instead of two eyes. It is due to environment.
2. Case of Ramu, the wolf boy:
Ramu’s case is quite recent who remained among the wolves and became wolf in food habits, speech and other traits. This also proves that an individual is more a product of environment than of heredity.
3. Nursery education:
It has been found that children who are sent to nursery earlier than other children show an increase of 4 to 5 points in their intelligence quotient as compared to children who do not receive education.
4. Case of Amala and Kamala:
Amala and Kamala aged two and nine years respectively were found in Bengal in 1920 by J.A.L. Singh. The used to talk, walk and act like wolves. It also indicates the importance of environment.
5. Akhtar’s experiment:
Akhtar’s experiments to keep children away from the society and under the care of dumb nurses show that social environment marks the child a human being worth the name. Children under experiment remained dumb.
Summary of Environment
1. Influence on physical development:
Franz Boaz believe that differences in physique among the different races are caused due to environment and not due to heredity.
2. Influence on intellectual development:
From the case of Ramu, Amala and Kamala, it is proved that intellectual development suffers in the absence of suitable social and cultural environment.
3. Influence on different races:
Clark is the view that the cause of superior intelligence of the races is environment and not heredity. He believe that Negros are less intelligent than whites because they do not get social, cultural environment like the white people.
4. Influence on total personality:
Cooley and many other thinkers have proved that the individual can become great by developing his personality while living in good environment.
5. Influence on Orphans:
Woodworth assets that those orphan children who are given suitable environment in the orphanages prove better on the whole than their parents.
At the end, we can say that Heredity and environment both are significant factors in the development of personality. If heredity is the base, environment is the structure. If heredity is the seed, environment is the soil. If heredity is the soul, environment is the body. As we cannot separate the soul from the body in a living human being, so we cannot separate the heredity from environment.
Thus heredity and environment are complementary.